Carbon Capture and Storage

imagesCarbon capture and storage – GHG emission decreasing technology depends on an enabling policy framework for its effective release.

It can make a significant impact on reducing the disastrous consequences of climate change, though the quality of the policy becomes extremely critical.

CCG belongs to a group of technologies that facilitate the capture of CO2 from fuel combustion or industrial processes, the transfer of CO2 through ships/pipelines and the storage below the surface.

According to experts, it can play a vital role in the international transformation to a viable low carbon economy.

At present, short, medium and long-term forecasts for energy demand across the globe signifies fossil fuels combusted in amounts incompatible with mandatory requirements to steady greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at acceptable levels in the environment.

The entire range of technologies encompassing the CCS chain has been documented. They have been used across sectors over a period of time on a small scale.

However, with the emphasis on restricting climate change, they have been presented at an industrial level (>1Mt CO2). Other than storage, the captured carbon dioxide can also potentially be utilized for Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery – Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery (ECBM).

Again, from a commercial aspect, any Oil & Gas that can be recovered based on the CCG procedure is critical since it would not have been feasible to extract them under normal circumstances.

According to a report by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (2010) “The combination of carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and permanent CO2 storage in oil reservoirs has the potential to provide a critical near-term solution for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.”

Oil production traditionally happens in three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary.

During the first stage, natural pressure present within the oil moves it in the direction of the production wells and then to the surface using pumps/mechanisms.

Through the secondary stage, production is based on injecting water into an oil reservoir, thereby enhancing the pressure, which results in oil moving towards the production well.

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is the tertiary procedure of oil recovery. It facilitates critical quantities of oil to be extracted.

The quantity of CO2 in the air is increasing and to avoid hazardous climate change, a substantial level of CO2 alleviation is required. The requirement for fossil fuels continues to be robust, particularly in developing nations. CCS is a feasible alternative to reduce emissions from mega emission sources.

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